By: Burr Corley
Consultant, Motor Team
April is National Donate Life Month focusing attention on the importance of organ and tissue donation in much needed medical transplants. Donate Life America and its partnering organizations feature activities throughout the month of April to bring awareness to the needs of those awaiting transplants, and how individuals can become involved in this issue.
We here at JAN think this is a good opportunity to discuss accommodation ideas for people who have experienced an organ transplant. According to data on organ transplants featured on the Website WebMD, the most commonly transplanted organs are the kidneys, liver, heart, pancreas, lungs, and small intestine. For those individuals given a new lease on life with their new organs, they often face significant challenges during their recovery. This not only includes time spent recuperating from a surgical procedure, but often a lifetime of managing medications they must take to keep their bodies from rejecting the new organ. Some of these medications have significant side effects. Many individuals who have undergone an organ transplant anticipate returning to their career after a successful transplant. An effective accommodation can make this possible.
The definition of disability was expanded when the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was amended in 2008 so the ADA now protects a lot more people. As a result, individuals in need of organ transplants are probably entitled to accommodation under the ADA if they work for covered employers. An employer with an employee who needs an organ transplant might want to be aware of accommodations the employee might need before, during, and after a transplant.
Before The Transplant
An organ transplant is a medical procedure to replace a failing organ with a new, healthy one. Many transplant candidates have been managing a chronic illness for years before being considered for a transplant. For example, candidates for receiving a heart transplant may be experiencing cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by an enlarged heart and the weakening of the heart muscle. Liver transplants are typically needed for individuals with severe liver diseases such as cirrhosis.
Many individuals may have already requested and received accommodations from their employer at this point. However, being a candidate for a transplant may require some additional accommodations. In particular, while on the list for a transplant, the patient will require medical examinations in preparation for the surgery. These exams may be done at treatment centers some distance away from where the employee lives and works. According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), allowing for a flexible schedule so the employee can attend treatment appointments and/or permitting flexible use of leave could be an effective accommodation. In some circumstances, allowing the employee to work in an alternate location could also be an accommodation option.
During and After the Transplant
A transplant patient is usually put on a list and must wait for a period of time before he or she can receive an organ. This is a process that can take years, so the timing of the transplant is often unpredictable. Employers will want to work out leave arrangements ahead of time so the employee can focus on his or her treatment and recovery. After the transplant, there will often be a recovery time during which the employee will not be able to work. The doctor may also restrict the employee from driving so the employer may want to look into accommodations for driving.
When the employee does return to work, the employer may want to be aware of some limitations that may require accommodation. First of all, individuals who have received an organ transplant often have extensive follow up appointments that they must attend so the transplant team can monitor how they are faring with their new organ. These appointments will be necessary for the rest of the employee’s life. Again, an employer should be aware it may be necessary to consider schedule modification and/ or flexible use of leave as an accommodation so the employee can attend these appointments. In addition, the individual who received the transplant is likely to be taking medications that lessen the risk of the patient’s body rejecting the transplanted organ by suppressing the immune system. These are called immunosuppressant medications. With a suppressed immune system, the employee may need accommodations to help avoid infections.
Here are some ideas for accommodating an individual with a suppressed immune system:
- Allow employee to avoid work around infectious agents
- Provide the employee a private office with a computer keyboard, mouse, and telephone keypad that can be sterilized
- Limit the employee’s exposure to situations in which there could be at risk of infection
- Allow the employee to work from home
- Allow for flexible leave time
A suppressed immune system and the side effects of anti-rejection medications from a transplant may not be the only limitations that need to be accommodated in the workplace.
Here are other side effects and health problems that may need to be accommodated depending on the particular type of transplant:
- Tremors – Some of the anti-rejection drugs can cause the transplant patient to have tremors. Although it covers a different impairment, JAN’s publication on Accommodations for Essential Tremors can be a good source for accommodation ideas.
- Increased risk of diabetes – One out of 10 patients who undergo an organ transplant develop Type 2 Diabetes. Here is a JAN publication on Accommodations for Employees with Diabetes.
- Increased risk of heart disease because of elevated cholesterol — Here is a publication from JAN with information about accommodations for employees with heart conditions.
- Increased risk of high blood pressure.
- Gastrointestinal problems – Here is a page from the JAN Website addressing accommodations for gastrointestinal issues.
- Patients may develop gout or have symptoms of gout worsened because of immunosuppressant medication.
- Anxiety and Depression – As with any major life changing event, undergoing a transplant procedure can contribute to symptoms of anxiety and depression. Here is a JAN publication on accommodating employees with mental health impairments.
With accommodations for individuals who have organ transplants, there is not a one size fits all solution. Not every transplant recipient is going to experience all of the limitations listed above. Over time, the transplant patient’s risk of rejection is lowered so the treatment team may reduce the level of medication he or she needs, and side effects will be reduced. As with any interactive accommodation process, a good source of information about what is needed is the employee who requested the accommodation. Medical documentation can also be useful from the employee’s treatment team. As always, you can contact JAN with your questions at (800)526-7234 (Voice), (877)781-9403 (TTY), or visit us on the Web at AskJAN.org.
Donate Life America
“Donate Life America is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit alliance of national organizations and state teams across the United States committed to increasing organ, eye and tissue donation. Donate Life America manages and promotes the national brand for donation, Donate Life, and assists Donate Life State Teams and national partners in facilitating high-performing donor registries; developing and executing effective multi-media donor education programs; and motivating the American public to register now as organ, eye and tissue donors.”
WebMD – Organ Transplant Overview
By: Lisa Dorinzi – Consultant on Motor/Mobility Team; Sheryl Grossman – Consultant on Motor/Mobility Team; and Kim Cordingly – Lead Consultant on Self-Employment Team
March 3-7 is Telework Week 2014 – a global initiative that strives to raise awareness of the many benefits arising when employers provide the option for their employees to telework. For many employees in the federal government, Telework Week began by working from home during another day of severe winter weather. This proved to be a timely illustration of the benefits of telework to keep a workforce productive even when they aren’t physically able to get to work.
According to the Telework Enhancement Act of 2010, the term ‘telework’ or ‘teleworking’ refers to a work flexibility arrangement under which an employee performs the duties and responsibilities of such employee’s position, and other authorized activities, from an approved worksite other than the location from which the employee would otherwise work. This legislation requires federal agencies to implement telework protocol and procedures, which could allow eligible employees the option to work remotely.
As illustrated this week, the option of telework has benefits during bad weather or other emergencies. Additional advantages include saving money on office space and supplies, “going green” by eliminating the commute to and from work, and encouraging work/life balance for employees. These factors may make it easier to recruit and retain workers as well as advancing the goals and mission of the workplace.
Telework as a Reasonable Accommodation
Apart from the overall benefits of telework, it can also be an effective accommodation strategy for employees with disabilities. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) offers guidance on how telework can be a reasonable accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). For many people with disabilities, telework arrangements can provide years of additional productive work beyond what would have been possible in a standard work setting. In many instances, the essential functions of a job can still be performed from an alternate location and at more flexible times. And, telework has been made a more viable accommodation option by advancements in digital technologies making various forms of communication possible across long distances, even on a shared project. These advancements also serve to reduce previous fears that an accommodation of telework forces isolation from co-workers. When appropriate attention is paid to the effectiveness of an accommodation, win-win situations can emerge.
As a federal collaborator, the Computer/Electronic Accommodations Program (CAP) at the Department of Defense (DoD) supports telework by providing services and accommodations to eligible federal workers with disabilities and wounded Service members. CAP’s employment initiative describes telework as a form of reasonable accommodation by permitting an individual to perform his or her job remotely. CAP can provide training and consultation, assistive technology, computer hardware and software, and other office telecommunication equipment to allow a person to telework.
Telework can benefit individuals with various medical conditions and the limitations they may face in the workplace. Let’s take a closer look at a few real scenarios fielded by JAN consultants where telework was an effective accommodation option.
Accommodation Examples from JAN Customers
An editor with a vision impairment was not able to drive to work. He lived in a rural area so public transportation was not an option. The employer permitted the employee to work from home. The employee was able to conference call in for important meetings when necessary.
A registered nurse with hearing loss and mental health impairment was experiencing anxiety and sleep disturbances. Her job entailed monitoring home health clients though a computer system and telephone. Her employer allowed her to install the data secured equipment in her home thus enabling her to successfully perform her job tasks while minimizing her symptoms.
A loan officer experienced migraine headaches multiple times a month. The migraines would cause the employee to be fatigued and photosensitive. This was causing the employee to only be able to work for 4-5 hours in the office causing attendance concerns. To minimize absences, the employee was allowed to telework from home where she was able to take self-regulated breaks and work when she felt her best.
An accountant with chronic pain syndrome and a back impairment had a problem sitting at his desk for extended amounts of time. The employee was allowed to work from home a few times a week, which enabled him to alternate positions and build in periodic rest breaks for stretching.
A customer service representative had multiple chemical sensitivity. The various fragrances within the office space were exacerbating the employee’s symptoms. After other options proved unsuccessful – such as a fragrance free policy, air purifiers, and an isolated office — the employee and employer mutually decided telework was the best option.
A paralegal with gastrointestinal issues had flare ups about four times a year. During these flare ups the employee was permitted to work from home, which allowed the employee to use the restroom as needed, but still perform all work tasks.
An insurance agent with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) would experience flashbacks and anxiety during the two hour commute to work. The employer granted telework as an accommodation, enabling the employee to give her full attention and energy to her work tasks.
For more information regarding the telework option, visit the JAN Website.
Mobile Work Exchange
2013 Status of Telework in the Federal Government – Report to Congress
Telework, Once a ‘Mom Perk,’ Keeps Government Humming During Snow Storms
By: Melanie Whetzel, Senior Consultant – Cognitive/Neurological Team
While our thoughts this month are focused on Valentine’s Day, the American Heart Association uses February each year to bring awareness to some pretty grave statistics. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
- Every year, about 715,000 Americans have a heart attack
- Every year about 600,000 Americans die from heart disease
- 1 out of every 4 deaths is a result of heart disease
- Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women.
The term “heart disease” refers to several types of heart conditions. The most common type in the United States is coronary heart disease (also called coronary artery disease). Coronary heart disease can cause heart attack, angina, heart failure, and arrhythmias.
The situation is alarming, but there is good news—heart disease is preventable and controllable. Log on to both the CDC and the American Heart Association Websites for healthy tips and information on how to improve your heart health.
If a heart condition is causing difficulties on the job, consider how job accommodations may be helpful. Job Accommodation Network (JAN) consultants can provide individualized assistance and can be accessed by phone, TTY, relay, e-mail, online chat, Skype, or various social networks. A JAN consultant can provide assistance to employees and employers alike regarding accommodations that might be helpful for various heart conditions that cause limitations in the workplace.
Below are examples of real life accommodation situations and solutions from JAN customers with heart conditions:
A maintenance technician, restricted from working in extreme temperatures, was accommodated with a modified schedule not requiring her to work outside in these conditions.
An individual, who delivered mail in a high-rise office building had high blood pressure and was limited to no lifting and pushing over 25 pounds. The employer provided the individual with a power cart and compact lifting devices to assist with moving materials.
An employee with a heart condition who was unable to walk up more than one flight of stairs asked to be accommodated with a ground floor office. The elevator on the premises was undependable and broke down frequently. This employee was to be accommodated with a ground floor office as soon as one became available. In the meantime, the employee was provided a temporary office space in a seldom used small ground-floor conference area.
See JAN’s Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Heart Conditions, Searchable Online Accommodation Resource: Heart Conditions, Effective Accommodation Practice Series: Heart Conditions, and find valuable contact information from an Organizations list all linked on JAN’s Website.
By: Melanie Whetzel, Senior Consultant – Cognitive/Neurological Team
The American Heart Association reports that heart disease is the leading killer of women in the United States, claiming more lives than all forms of cancer combined. For more than 10 years, the American Heart Association has sponsored National Wear Red Day® to raise awareness of the fight against heart disease in women.
Some of us have an abundance of red in our wardrobes. It is a great color. It stands out and draws attention. According to the American Heart Association, the color red can be a confidence booster and make us feel powerful. That may just be the reason they chose the color red to declare the fight against heart disease. It is also the color of our hearts.
2014 marks the 11th anniversary of the National Wear Red Day. Numerous improvements have been made in women’s heart health in the intervening years. They include:
- 21 percent fewer women dying from heart disease
- 23 percent more women aware that it’s their No. 1 health threat
- Publishing of gender-specific results, established differences in symptoms and responses to medications, and women-specific guidelines for prevention and treatment
- Legislation to help end gender disparities
For more information about heart disease and the National Wear Red Day, visit the American Heart Association Website.
Stay tuned for JAN’s next Blog on accommodation situations and solutions for individuals with heart conditions.
For information about JAN and job accommodations, visit our Website at AskJAN.org. For more specific information about accommodations for heart conditions and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), visit Accommodation Ideas for Heart Conditions.
By: Elisabeth Simpson, Senior Consultant – Motor Team
What do tennis balls, a headlamp, and curtains all have in common? They can all be used as a reasonable accommodation in the workplace. But wait — how can that be? Aren’t all accommodations expensive and high tech? In actuality, many accommodation solutions can be considered “low tech,” and according to an ongoing study conducted by JAN since 2004, employers report that a 58 percent of accommodations cost absolutely nothing to make, while the rest typically cost only $500.
A common misconception about accommodations is that products and equipment that have been developed to assist individuals with disabilities with various activities, including those that are work related, are expensive, high-end electronics and technology. It is not uncommon for employers to ask about a high cost device before considering low cost/low tech options or simple modifications that work just as well.
It is important to note that some types of assistive technology (AT) that are more expensive may be necessary. The type of equipment, product, or AT that an employee with a disability needs (or has requested) will always be a case-by-case determination. But one thing for employers to consider is that, in some cases, something as simple as putting curtains up to reduce glare on a computer monitor for an employee with migraine headaches is much less complicated than searching for the best anti-glare computer monitor on the market.
Here are a few real-life JAN examples of low cost accommodation solutions:
A clerical worker who stamped paperwork for several hours a day was limited in pinching and gripping due to carpal tunnel syndrome. The individual was accommodated with adapted stamp handles. Anti-vibration wrap was placed around the stamp handles. In addition, tennis balls were cut and placed over the wrapped handles to eliminate fine motor pinching and gripping.
A production worker with intellectual or cognitive impairment and cerebral palsy had difficulty grasping a plastic bottle to accurately apply an adhesive label. JAN suggested making a wooden jig to hold the bottle while the employee applies the label. Approximate accommodation cost was under $50.
A grocery stock person with autism could not remember to wear all parts of his uniform. JAN suggested taking a picture of the employee in full uniform, giving him the picture, and allowing him to use the picture as reference when preparing for work. Approximate accommodation cost is $5.
A custodian with low vision in a public school setting was having difficulty viewing the carpeted area he was vacuuming. A lighting system was mounted on the custodian’s industrial vacuum cleaner, and the custodian was provided a headlamp.
As these examples show, often accommodations are low cost, low tech, and can be implemented fairly easily. Workspace modifications can be made at little to no cost and there are all kinds of inexpensive devices on the market. Accommodations might also include a specially designed or modified product, but customization doesn’t always translate into high cost. Removing the legs of a computer desk can be a very low cost custom modification for an individual of short stature.
JAN consultants can provide individualized case-by-case assistance regarding various accommodation options; information on products; organizational referrals; and locating specific vendors of a wide variety of low cost and low tech accommodations.
For onsite assistance, rehabilitation professionals and assistive technology specialists can be great resources for employers. These individuals have been specifically trained to perform assessments that identify the individual’s needs; strengths and abilities; environmental consideration; tasks that are problematic; and the tools necessary for success.
So remember, before jumping to the conclusion that an accommodation will break the bank, low cost accommodations do exist! If you are wanting to learn more about the JAN study and the various findings related to the costs and benefits of providing accommodations in the workplace, you can review the JAN Accommodation and Compliance Series Workplace Accommodations: Low Cost, High Impact.
By: Louis Orslene, JAN Co-Director
When I’m on the road presenting, I often get this question. Usually it is from a supervisor or hiring manager, but at times from a human resource (HR) specialist who is responsible for advising managers. Being a manager, I understand the dilemma. The manager’s role is to keep a team well informed on issues affecting the team with the ultimate goal of insuring team cohesiveness and productivity.
When asked about another employee’s accommodation, the manager can take the approach that this information is none of the business of co-workers or other employees. However, as many who have served in this role know, this may not be the most pragmatic approach. And, as David K. Fram, Esquire, Director of the ADA & EEO Services for the National Employment Law Institute (NELI) suggests “…employees – or unions – may insist on knowing why one employee gets to perform the job in a different manner.” Thus, this complicates the manager’s dilemma.
At times, when it comes to sharing information involving an employee accommodation, managers are caught between the proverbial rock and a hard place. As with much of managing, it is a balancing act. On one hand, the manager must protect the confidentiality of the accommodated employee which also serves to minimize risk for business. On the other hand, the manager needs to communicate changes in the team environment to insure team morale, motivation, and ultimately productivity.
For guidance on this issue, let’s look to two national authorities on the topic of disabilities in the workplace — the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), who enforces the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Amendments Act (ADAAA), and NELI.
The EEOC offers:
“If employees ask questions about a coworker who has a disability, the employer must not disclose any medical information in response. An employer also may not tell employees whether it is providing a reasonable accommodation for a particular individual.”
Fram from NELI adds:
“Some disability advocates have argued that disclosing that someone is receiving an ADA reasonable accommodation essentially reveals that the individual has a disability.”
So as a manager, “What then can I say?” First, I would suggest for the manager or HR specialist to request assistance from their legal department. A response to this question may have already been developed and sanctioned by the legal staff. If not, the EEOC offers that a manager:
“…may explain that it is acting for legitimate business reasons or in compliance with federal law.”
Fram writes that in the proceedings for Williams v. Astrue, 2007 EEOPUB LEXIS 4206 (EEOC 2007), the EEOC offered employers additional language to be considered.
Thus, a manager might also say:
“…it has a policy of assisting any employee who encounters difficulties in the workplace,” and that “…many of the workplace issues encountered by employees are personal, and that, in these circumstances, it is the employer’s policy to respect employee privacy.”
However, one of the most concise and informative answers to this question was articulated in a recent Employer Assistance and Resource Network (EARN) Webinar by speaker Susan W. Brecher, Esquire, of Cornell University. Susan suggests that managers say:
“…we look and treat employees individually and make considerations based upon good business reasons which allows for privacy of each individual.”
Of the responses I’ve heard to date, I think this is the best. It provides just enough information without speaking directly to the specifics of the individual being accommodated.
EEOC Enforcement Guidance on the Americans with Disabilities Act and Psychiatric Disabilities, EEOC NOTICE, Number 915.002 , Date 3-25-97, page 18.
NELI’s The Human Resource Guide to Answering ADA Workplace Questions (8th Edition), 31st Edition 9/2011, Page III-41-42.
EARN Webinar, The Interplay between FMLA and ADAAA Human Capital Development, Cornell University, ILR School. Thursday, September 27, 2012.
By: Teresa Goddard, Senior Consultant, Sensory Team
November was American Diabetes Month, so predictably JAN consultants received many inquiries about accommodations for employees with diabetes. JAN customers often ask about the most common type of accommodation for a particular condition. Anecdotally, I would say that a modified schedule, such as flexible start times and modified break schedules, is one of the most common types of accommodation we discuss during calls about diabetes. Other typical accommodation solutions include providing a space for the employee to store medication and food; policy modifications which allow an individual to eat at one’s desk; or procedural modifications related to travel reimbursement which may be needed to avoid passing extra costs related to food, and medication storage or other disability related travel expenses on to the employee. However, over the past few years, I’ve noticed the number of questions we receive about the use of service dogs by employees with diabetes seems to be increasing. I’ve also fielded numerous questions on this topic during presentations and trainings, as well as the day-to-day calls here at the office.
The number of calls we receive at JAN related to employees with diabetes who use service animals to assist with management of their condition continues to be relatively small in comparison to the total number of accommodation inquiries we receive about diabetes. However, we have seen a gradual increase since the passage of the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA). Because of the ADAAA, individuals with diabetes are more easily able to show they are covered under the ADA. One of the changes that occurred when the ADAAA went into effect is that major bodily functions now count as major life activities for purposes of determining whether or not someone meets the definition of disability under ADA. In addition, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidance on the ADAAA specifically mentions functions of the endocrine system as an example of a major bodily function that counts as a major life activity. This is important for individuals with diabetes because the pancreas, which produces insulin, is an important part of the endocrine system. While there is still no list of conditions that are always covered under the ADA, it is likely that most people with a diagnosis of diabetes will be able to show that they are substantially limited in the functions of their endocrine system.
The increased interest in service dogs as an accommodation for diabetes may have to do with their ability to alert individuals to blood sugar problems. Service dogs for individuals with diabetes are sometimes referred to as hypoglycemia alert dogs. In order to be considered a service animal as opposed to an emotional support animal, the dog has to be trained to perform some type of task. Hypoglycemia alert dogs are trained to prompt an individual with diabetes or episodes of hypoglycemia that their blood sugar levels may be dropping. The mechanism by which a hypoglycemia alert dog can detect a change in blood sugar is not fully understood. A recent study published in the journal Diabetes Care (Dehlinger et al., 2013) did not support the idea that dogs use their sense of smell to detect changes in blood sugar. However, the sample size was small. The study also did not rule out the possibility of dogs using behavioral cues rather than scent to detect changes in blood sugar. Many more studies will be needed before we can fully understand how hypoglycemia alert dogs detect changes in blood sugar and the circumstances under which they can do so reliably. It is my understanding that not all dogs are able to do so.
Although hypoglycemia alert dog is a term that is typically used to refer to a service dog used by an individual with diabetes, some of our callers have reported that their dogs can also alert to hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia means low blood sugar whereas hyperglycemia means high blood sugar. Different treatments are required for each of these conditions. Those who are prone to episodes of both may need to test their blood sugar level when alerted by the dog in order to know what to do next.
Dogs may alert individuals with diabetes to a change in blood sugar in different ways, but one common method is to nudge the individual who is experiencing an episode, or to vocalize in a manner similar to a whine or a whimper. To an outside observer, this may appear similar to a dog asking to go outside or for food, but the meaning is clear to the individual with diabetes. Some dogs may be trained to perform more complex tasks such as retrieving glucose tablets.
One issue that comes up frequently during calls about hypoglycemia alert dogs in the workplace is the fact that training methods tend to be different from those of other service animals. It is not unusual among users of hypoglycemic alert dogs for a pet that is already part of the family of the person with diabetes to undergo service animal training. This is different from the training of many service animals whereby the animal is trained through a specialized program (often with participation of the future owner) and then placed into service. Sometimes the individual may train the animal on their own with the support of a diabetes-related medical provider or support organization. This may complicate the process of providing medical documentation to an employer, particularly if the training is done by the individual with a family pet.
Over the years, service animals have taken on an increasingly important role as an accommodation option for people with disabilities to succeed in the workplace. For individuals with diabetes, hypoglycemia alert dogs can help mediate a potentially serious health condition so that the employee can continue to be a productive part of the workforce.
For additional information see:
Service Animals in the Workplace
Accommodation Ideas for Employees with Diabetes
Dehlinger, K., Tarnowski, K., House, J. L., Los, E. L., Hanavan, K., Bustamante, B., Ahmann, A. J., & Ward, K. W. (2013). Can trained dogs detect a hypoglycemic scent in patients with type 1 diabetes? Diabetes Care, 36(7), e98-e99.
By: Tracie DeFreitas, Lead Consultant
When we talk about making facilities accessible and useable as a type of accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), most people don’t necessarily think about invisible barriers that may be in the air. They may think about more obvious physical barriers like stairs leading to an entrance, narrow doorways, or inaccessible restrooms. However, for some people, irritants like fragrances, deodorizers, scented candles, and other chemicals in the air can be as much an access barrier as a missing ramp or inoperative elevator. People with asthma, allergies, or other respiratory disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of these irritants at levels that are much lower than what might cause problems for those in the general population.
In particular, exposure to fragranced products can make it difficult for some employees to function effectively at work. JAN Consultants talk to employers who are trying to accommodate employees who report fragrance sensitivity. Fragrance sensitivity is either an irritation or an allergic reaction to some chemical or combination of chemicals in a product. Although perfumes and colognes are generally what come to mind, fragrance is commonly added to a variety of daily use items like toiletries, cosmetics, air fresheners, laundry soaps and softeners, and cleaning products. People with fragrance sensitivity often experience symptoms such as breathing difficulties: wheezing, a tight feeling in the chest, or worsening of asthma symptoms; headaches; nausea; hives and other skin irritations; and limitations in memory and concentration.
Situations involving fragrance or scent sensitivity can be a little complicated because accommodations sometimes impact others in the work environment. For example, some employers have implemented workplace policies or made requests that all employees refrain from wearing and using scented products in the workplace. While a 100% fragrance-free environment may not be reasonable, an employer may still take measures to reduce exposure to such irritants. It becomes an issue of fragrance-use awareness. As with any accommodation situation, it is up to the employer to determine what is reasonable with regard to the type of accommodation(s) that can be implemented. JAN offers a number of accommodation solutions that may help:
- Reduce exposure to scented products by asking employees to be conscious of their choice of products (opt for non-scented) and to refrain from wearing fragrances and colognes to the workplace
- Move the employee’s workstation away from co-workers who use heavily scented products, fragrances, etc.
- Do not situate the employee’s workstation near areas of heavy foot traffic or congregation (i.e., break room, restroom, elevator area)
- Provide an enclosed workspace
- Provide an air cleaner of the right size to effectively clean the space (i.e., select a model sufficient for gaseous filtration) and make sure the HVAC system is working properly
- Provide a desk fan
- Allow a flexible work schedule so the employee who is sensitive can work when fewer people are in the building
- Allow the employee to wear a mask (e.g., http://www.icanbreathe.com/favorite.htm)
- Allow breaks to take medication or get fresh air
- Allow telework
- Implement and enforce a fragrance-free policy
For additional information regarding accommodation ideas for people who are sensitive to fragrances, see JAN’s publication Employees with Fragrance Sensitivity or contact JAN to speak with a consultant.
By: Melanie Whetzel, Senior Consultant, Cognitive/Neurological Team
November is National Epilepsy Awareness Month focusing attention on the experiences of individuals with epilepsy and seizure disorders in many aspects of their daily lives, including employment. JAN is offering the following information as a way to highlight the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and accommodation issues pertinent to employees with epilepsy in the workplace.
Are you seeking information on workplace accommodations related to epilepsy and seizure disorders? If you are, you are not alone! JAN has responded to over 330 inquiries so far this year concerning these type of medical conditions. We are your connection to a wealth of information available to assist you. These resources include a recent Webcast on Epilepsy Accommodations that has been archived for viewing; an Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Epilepsy; an EEOC Fact Sheet: Questions and Answers about Epilepsy in the Workplace and ADA; a Consultant’s Corner: Epilepsy, Driving, and Employment; as well as a brand-new Searchable Online Accommodation Resource (SOAR) page on epilepsy. If you have a specific situation you would like to discuss, JAN consultants can provide one-on-one assistance. There are a variety of ways to access our services. We can be reached through our toll-free telephone line at (800) 526-7234 (Voice) or (877) 781-9403 (TTY); conduct a live online chat; send an E-mail through our JAN on Demand feature; or access us on a variety of social networks. Don’t let your questions go unanswered – contact us here at JAN for personalized expert assistance.
By: MSKTC Staff
Do you have a spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), or burn injury? Or do you care for someone who does?
If the answer to either of these questions is yes, the Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center (MSKTC) is a free resource that can help you. The MSKTC develops easy-to-access resources such as factsheets, slideshows, and videos to support individuals living with SCI, TBI and burn injury. Best of all, these resources are research-based and developed in collaboration with leading SCI, TBI, and burn injury researchers from Model Systems funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.
Examples of resources include:
- Factsheets, which give brief overviews of information on key topics relating to SCI, TBI, and burn injury
- Slideshows, that translate research information in an easy-to-understand format
- Videos, which show how Model Systems research benefits end users
- Hot Topics Modules, that bundle factsheets, slideshows, and videos based on Model Systems research
Example resources that can help you seek and maintain employment, and help develop your employment skillset include:
Participate in Research Studies
The MSKTC also recruits individuals 18 years and older with SCI, TBI, or burn injury and the people who care for them to participate in research studies and test consumer factsheets. To share your experiences to help others in the future, please call Mahlet Megra, (202) 403-5600 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
For more information on the Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center (MSKTC), visit: http://www.msktc.org